Marginal Abatement Cost Tool (MACTool)

Identifying options and costs for climate change mitigation

MACTool helps policymakers compare the costs and benefits of emission reduction options that can be used to build low-carbon scenarios at a national or sub-national level. It provides a cost-benefit comparison of these options and an estimate of the incentives needed to make these options attractive for the private sector by calculating break-even carbon prices. It also enables governments to assess the total investment needed to shift towards low carbon growth. MACTool can also be used to test the possibility of a domestic cap and trade system, by exploring which sectors would be likely to respond to a given carbon price.

MACTool builds a reference scenario and low carbon scenarios for each individual low-carbon option. It allows users to schedule investments for low carbon alternatives along the planning period. It calculates the differential in emissions, investments, costs and revenues between the scenarios, and generates customised curves that make it easy to visualise options. It helps governments answer the following questions:

  • Among available mitigation options, which will be the most efficient and cost-effective?
  • What are the potential results associated with each option?
  • What does it cost to implement each option?

This tool has been used in Brazil, Macedonia, Romania, South Africa, Ukraine and Vietnam.


MACTool comes with embedded videos providing users with step-by-step guidance on using MACTool. ESMAP provides training and varying levels of operational and technical support to teams using MACTool. Training can be arranged for qualified teams.
Using the tool: 1 analyst and 1 senior person for reviewing findings
Time needed:
2 to 3 months

Accessing the tool

Online: Excel based economic model. Need to request access to download the tool. Contact Pedzi Makumbe:
Pedzi Makumbe:
Assessment of mitigation / resource potential

Assess broad mitigation options such as CO2 emissions reduction and renewable energy resource potentials such as wind energy.

GHG emissions and energy models

Computer-based models which calculate greenhouse gas emissions and energy supply and demand.

Low Emission Development Strategies

Method to effect measures that can help reduce emissions, and thereby mitigate climate change.

Technology Needs Assessments

Survey to provide data to assess the need for technology in specific areas or regions.

Area of focus
Adaptation 0, Mitigation 3, Development 3

Published by:

World Bank , Energy Sector Management Assistance Program


For use in Asia, Africa, Latin America